Callatis

Mangalia (Greek: Callatis, Panglicara, other historical names: Pangalia, Tomisovara) is a city and a port on the Romanian coast of the Black Sea in the south-east of Constanţa County.


A Greek colony named Callatis (Kallatis) was founded in 6th century BCE by the city of Heraclea Pontica (in Greek Callatis means the (most) beautiful). Its first silver coinage was minted approximately 350 BCE.


In 72 BCE, Callatis was conquered by the Roman general Lucullus and was assigned to the Roman province of Moesia Inferior. From this period dates the "tomb with papirus". Throughout the 2nd century CE, the city built defensive fortifications and the minting of coinage under the Roman emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla continued. Callatis suffered multiple invasions in the third century CE but recovered in the 4th century CE to retain its status as an important trade hub and port city.


Since the 9th century it was known by the Turks as Pangalia, by the Romanians as Tomisovara and by the Greeks as Panglicara and it was one of the most important ports on the west coast of the Black Sea. As in the case of other Greek-roman settlements from the Black Sea shore, the migratory people waves have stopped the development of Callatis. Only in the 12 century, on the place of the ancient flourishing fortress, was mentioned a small villages with a port. The name of Mangalia appears only in documents from the 14th century. Mangalia (former Callatis) is the oldest city, continuously inhabited, on the present territory of Romania.

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